In this part of the course you'll get an overview of a selection of citation styles: APA, Chicago, Harvard and MLA. We'll give you the rules of thumb for making references in the text and for making the reference list, with some examples.
The rules for citing and referencing of these citation styles are often published in manuals. We advise you to consult these publications for more specific examples and details.
- APA style
This style is developed by the American Psychological Association. The style is used in the social and natural sciences. The examples are based on the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (6th edition).
The Chicago style is used in economics and business administration. The used examples are based on the The Chicago Manual of Style (16th edition). Within the Chicago style there are several formats. Ask your supervisor which format you have to use.
This style is used in the economic science. There is no offical manual of the Harvard style. This style has also some variations. Here we follow the Harvard style of the ISS (International Institute of Social Studies).
- MLA style
The MLA style is developed by the Amerikaanse Modern Language Association. The style is used in the alpha-seinces. The used examples are based on the MLA handbook for writers of research papers (6th edition).