'Has growth been good for women’s employment in Pakistan?', by Hadia Majid and Karin Astrid Siegmann
ISS working paper 630
In this paper, we analyse the gender inclusiveness of Pakistan’s economic growth performance as measured by the rate at which employment changes when GDP increases by one percentage point. Our results show not only differences in such employment elasticities across sectors but also across genders. Rooted in women’s status as secondary workers within Pakistan’s labour force, their employment is commonly more responsive to the business cycle. Surprising results include that gender wage equality is positively associated with employment elasticities. Furthermore, we question the optimistic narrative that education improves women’s ability to take up employment in periods of positive GDP growth.
Economic growth, employment, gender, growth elasticity of employment, inclusive growth, Pakistan