Guidelines for source references

Most disciplines have their own system for quoting sources, ranging from a brief reference to very detailed and precise references. The American Psychological Association (APA) has published rules
about how references to literature should be presented. See >  References and citations > References and citation styles > APA style.
Many journals, including those in other disciplines, follow these rules. Other commonly used styles are the Chicago style (University of Chicago Press), the style of the MLA (Modern Language Association) and the Vancouver style (International Committee of Medical Journal Editors).

There are a few general guidelines that always apply for properly quoting sources. When you use other people’s words or ideas, whether they are those of another student or of a professor, you
must always clearly state who said what. It makes no difference whether a piece of text has been taken from another student’s paper, from an article in a scientific journal or from a document on the Internet, if you use someone else’s words or ideas you have to say so.

Follow these rules:

  • Always place a citation between quotation marks and provide an adequate reference to the source.
  • You may not edit or paraphrase other people’s words and present them as your own. If you are paraphrasing, say where the paraphrasing begins and where it ends and give the source.
  • You may never claim other people’s ideas as your own, even if you are presenting them in your own words.