Marketing: Consumer Behavior




Title Abstract
 Conner et al. (2015) On carrots and curiosity: Eating fruit and vegetables is associated with greater flourishing in daily life  The research aims to determine whether eating fruit and vegetables (FV) is associated with other markers of well-being beyond happiness and life satisfaction. Towards this aim, the paper tests whether FV consumption is associated with greater eudaemonic well-being - a state of flourishing characterized by feelings of engagement, meaning, and purpose in life. We also tested associations with two eudaemonic behaviours - curiosity and creativity. In conclusions, FV consumption predicts greater eudaemonic well-being, curiosity, and creativity at the between- and within-person levels. Young adults who ate more FV reported higher average eudaemonic well-being, more intense feelings of curiosity, and greater creativity compared with young adults who ate less FV. On days when young adults ate more FV, they reported greater eudaemonic well-being, curiosity, and creativity compared with days when they ate less FV. FV consumption also predicted higher positive affect (PA), which mostly did not account for the association between FV and other well-being variables. Some unhealthy foods (sweets, chips) were related to well-being except that consumption of sweets was associated with greater curiosity and PA at the within-person level. Lagged data analyses showed no carry-over effects of FV onto next day well-being.
 Hendy et al. (2005)  "Kids Choice" School lunch program increases children's fruit and vegetable acceptance The "Kids Choice" school lunch program used token reinforcement, food choice, and peer participation to increase children's fruit and vegetable consumption without later drops in food preference sometimes found in past research and often called 'overjustification effects'. Participations include 188 school children both boys and girls. After four baseline meals, children were randomly assigned for 12 meals to receive token reinforecement for eating either fruits or vegetables. Observers recorded fruit and vegetable consumption and provided token reinforcement by punching holes into nametags each day children ate their assigned foods, then once a week children could trade these tokens for small prizes. After the program, consumption increased for fruit and vegetables and the increases lasted throughout reinforcement conditions. Two weeks after the program, preference ratings showed increases for fruit and for vegetables. Seven months after hte program, fruit and vegetable preferences had returned to the baseline levels, suggesting the need for an ongoing school lunch program to keep preference high, but also showing no signs of 'overjustification effects' from the token reinforcement used in the 'Kids Choice' school lunch program. 
 J. H. Lavin et al. (1997)  The effect of sucrose- and aspartame- sweetened drinks on energy intake, hunger and food choice of female, moderately restrained eaters The paper aims to compare the effects of aspartame-sweetened and sucrose-sweetened soft drinks on food intake and appetite ratings of female restrained eaters. Fourteen female students participate in the study. To conclude, the results suggest that in females with eating restraint, substituting sucrose-sweetened drinks for diet drinks does not reduce total energy intake and may even result in a higher intake during the subsequent day.  
 M. Nestle et al. (1998)  Behavioral and Social influences on food choice  A blend of many factors, ranging from biological to anthropologic, interact in complex and changing ways to influence the development and maintenance of food choices. Understanding behavioral influences within the context of psychosocial influences is critical to the development of dietary recommendations, nutrition programs, and educational messages that will assist consumers in constructing healthful diets and promote dietary change. To select the most appropriate target of change (i.e. the most critical beliefs and behaviors), it is important to know and understand the critical influences of food choice and ascertain which of these are subject to modification. This paper first examines behavioral and social influences on food choice and then reviews existing research as to how social, environmental, behavioral and individual influences affect compliance with dietary change, especially changes in dietary fat. Finally, it identifies gaps in knowledge and outlines recommendations for research
 D. Shaw and T. Newholm (2002)  Voluntary simplicity and the Ethics of Consumption The increased levels of consumption that have accompanied our consumer-oriented culture have also given rise to some consumers questioning their individual consumption choices, with many opting for greater consumption simplicity. This link between consideration of actual consumption levels and consumer choices is evident among a group of consumers known as ethical consumers. Ethical consumers consider a range of ethical issues in their consumer behavioral choices. Particularly prevalent is voluntary simplification due to concerns for the extent and nature of consumption. Through the presentation of findings from two qualitative studies exploring known ethical consumers, the relationship of consumer attitudes to consumption levels, and how these attitudes impact approaches to consumer behavior, are discussed 
 W. Verbeke and J. Viaene (1999) Ethical challenges for livestock production: meeting consumer concerns about meat safety and animal welfare  Livestock production today faces the difficult task of effectively meeting emerging consumer concerns about product safety and animal welfare, while at the same time remaining competitive on major target markets. The relevance of these issues pertains to production efficiency and economic benefits and to re-estabilish meat sector image and consumer trust. This paper analyses consumer concerns about the ethical issues of meat safety and animal welfare from current livestock production. The research methodology is based on literature review, secondary data sources, group discussions, and a survey of 320 meat consumers in Belgium. The paper aims to assess importance attached by consumers to product safety, animal welfare in commercial livestock production and evaluate consumer perception of these issues for beef, pork, and poultry. Significant differences in issue importance and perceptions are based on socio-demographic and behavioral characteristics. From the analysis, meat safety emerges as an absolute but minimum requirement for future success of livestock and meat production. Animal welfare can be expected to become a critical theme, especially for pork and poultry acceptance. 
 I. Vermeir and W. Verbeke (2006) Sustainable food consumption: Exploring the consumer 'attitude - behavioral intention' gap  although public interest in sustainability increases and consumer attitudes are mainly positive, behavioral patterns are not univocally consistent with attitudes. This study investigates the presumed gap between favorable attitude towards sustainable behavior and behavioral intention to purchase sustainable food products. The impact of involvement, perceived availability, certainty, perceived consumer effectiveness, values, and social norms on comsumers' attitudes and intentions towards sustainable food products is analyzed. The empirical research builds on a survey of 456 young consumers, using questionnair and experimental design with manipulation of key constructs through showing advertisements for sustainable dairy. Involvement with sustainability, certainty and perceived consumer effectiveness have a significant positive impact on attitude towards buying sustainable dairy products, which in turn correlates strongly with intentions to buy. Low perceived availability of sustainable products explains why intention to buy remain low, although attitudes may be positive. On the reverse side, experiencing social pressure from peers (social norm) explain intentions to buy, despite rather negative personal attitudes. This study shows that more sustainable and ethical food consumption can be stimulated through raising involvement, perceived consumer effectiveness, certainty, social norms, and perceived availability.  



Author Title Abstract
 T. Kalliolitou (2012)  Sustainable Innovation: European customers' perceptions about organic fruits and vegetables & their purchase intentions  Sustainable innovation is gradually being applied in all industries, including agriculture and food. Focusing on organic food, the study reveals European customers' perceptions about organic fruits and vegetables and their purchase intentions. The results of the study can be useful from both marketing and innovation points of view. The study focuses on customers' perceptions; but it is also useful for business. Marketing can and should take over a more substantial role in new product and new business development, pushing for more sustainable solutions not as a communication strategy but as a philosophy that would describe the whole company. 
 N. G. M. Hoefs (2013) Children's consumption choices: An explanatory study on how marketing communications can motivate children to make healthier consumption choices  The number of children with obesity has drastically increased all over the world. The cause is obvious: people eat too much or consume too many unhealthy foods. This occurs because individuals have identified many barriers that withold them from adopting a healthy diet, with one of them being the media. The research investigates how marketing communications can motivate children to make healthier consumption choices. Children experience four barriers which restrain them from healthy eating (social influences, food preferences, media influences, and knowledge). Several strategies to motivate children to make healthier food choices: social control, educational strategies, advertising strategies.