Transfer Project Tanzania Youth Evaluations

The Transfer Project, led by UNICEF Office of Research – Innocenti and in collaboration with local research partners, UNICEF Tanzania, and the Tanzania Social Action Fund (TASAF), has implemented two impact evaluations to understand how the Productive Social Safety Net (PSSN), the flagship social protection programme of Tanzania, affects the well-being of adolescents and youth, a key demographic for breaking the inter-generational cycle of poverty. 

The first study (2015-2017), conducted in collaboration with REPOA, is an 18-month mixed-methods impact evaluation designed to estimate the effects of the PSSN on Tanzanian youth. The study focuses on outcomes related to youth safely transitioning to adulthood, including measurements of mental health and wellbeing; experiences of violence (females only); and risky sexual behaviors, among others.

Two waves of data collection

For the study, we conducted two waves of data collection; wherein quantitative and qualitative interviews were conducted with youth who were between the ages of 14 and 28 years at baseline. The evaluation utilizes a cluster randomized control trial (cRCT) design.
The second study (2017-2019), conducted in collaboration with Economic Development Initiatives (EDI), is a 24-month, mixed methods study to provide evidence on the potential for an additional “plus” component targeted to youth that is layered on top of the PSSN to improve future economic opportunities for youth and facilitate their safe transitions to adulthood.

This is based on the recognition that cash alone is rarely sufficient to mitigate all risks and vulnerabilities youth face or to overcome structural barriers to education, delayed marriage and pregnancy, and other safe transitions. Three waves of data collection are expected (two have been completed), with both quantitative and qualitative interviews conducted on adolescents aged 14-19 at baseline.


To provide evidence on the effects of two social protection programs on youth wellbeing and the transition to adulthood in Tanzania

Countries Involved


Involved Researchers & Departments/Institutes 

UNICEF Office of Research- Innocenti

  • Co-Principle Investigator: Tia Palermo 
  • Co-Investigators: Lusajo Kajula, Jacob de Hoop, Leah Prencipe, Valeria Groppo 

UNICEF Tanzania

  • Co-Investigators: Ulrike Gilbert, Paul Quarles van Ufford, Rikke Le Kirkegaard, Frank Eetaama 


  • Co-Investigators: Paul Luchemba, Tumpe Lukongo 


  • Co-Principle Investigators: Blandina Kilama, Flora Myamba 


  • Co-Principle Investigators: Johanna Choumert Nkolo, Respichius Mitti
  • Co-Investigators: Nathan Sivewright, Koen Leuveld, Bhoke Munanka

Erasmus MC, Department of Public Health

  • Co-Investigator: Leah Prencipe 


Journal Articles 

  • Kilburn K, Prencipe L, Hjelm L, Peterman A, Handa S and Palermo T. (2018). Examination of performance of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale Short Form 10 among African youth in poor, rural households. BMC Psychiatry, 18(201).


  • Waidler J on behalf of the Tanzania Cash Transfer Evaluation Team. (2018). Tanzania's Productive Social Safety Net Programme (PSSN) and Its Impacts On Youth. Transfer Project Brief 2018-07. Chapel Hill, NC: Carolina Population Center, UNC-Chapel Hill.
  • Tanzania Cash Plus Evaluation Team. (2018). Ujana Salama: Cash plus model on youth well-being and safe, healthy transitions. Transfer Project Brief 2018-06. Chapel Hill, NC: Carolina Population Center, UNC-Chapel Hill.
  • Prencipe L. (2018). PSSN impact evaluation: Youth well-being and the transition to adulthood. Transfer Project Brief 2018-05. Chapel Hill, NC: Carolina Population Center, UNC-Chapel Hill.
  • Prencipe L. (2018). Evaluating impacts of the PSSN on youth transitions to adulthood in Tanzania. Transfer Project Brief 2018-04. Chapel Hill, NC: Carolina Population Center, UNC-Chapel Hill.

Contact Info

Leah Prencipe, MPH, PhD candidate (Public Health)

View the project website

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