Common European Framework of Reference (CEFR)
In 2001 the Common European Framework of References for Languages was published after many years of research. This framework, also called CEFR, describes what language users who have acquired a new language can do and how well and efficiently they do so. These CEFR levels indicate the various levels of language proficiency of users of a language.
|A Beginners level||A1 Breakthrough|
|B Intermediate level|
|C Advanced level|
C1 Effective Operational Profiency
At the Language & Training Centre you generally need to take two language courses to increase your language proficiency by one CEFR level. For non-European languages you need to take more than two language courses to reach the next level. For more information please see the relevant language
Breakthrough - a basic command of the language, familiar with everyday expressions and
able to make very simple sentences.
Waystage - familiar with frequently used expressions and able to express oneself in everyday situations.
Threshold – can describe experiences, events, dreams and expectations and give his or her own opinion.
Vantage – can understand the main ideas of complex text and can produce clear detailed text.
Can spontaneously enter into a conversation.
Effective operational proficiency – able to express oneself fluently and use the language flexibly and efficiently for social, academic and professional purposes.
Spoken interaction You can express yourself fluently and spontaneously without much obvious searching for expressions. You can use language flexibly and effectively for social and professional purposes. You can formulate ideas and opinions with precision and relate your contribution skilfully to those of other speakers. Spoken production You can present clear, detailed descriptions of complex subjects integrating sub-themes, developing particular points and rounding off with an appropriate conclusion. Listening You can understand extended speech even when it is not clearly structured and when relationships are only implied and not signalled explicitly.
You can understand television programmes and films without too much effort.
Writing You can express yourself in clear, well-structured text, expressing points of view at some length. You can write about complex subjects in a letter, an essay or a report, underlining what you consider to be the salient issues. You can select style appropriate to the reader in mind. Reading You can understand long and complex factual and literary texts, appreciating distinctions of style. You can understand specialised articles and longer technical instructions, even when they do not relate to your field.
Mastery – can understand with ease virtually everything heard or read. Can express him/herself spontaneously, very fluently and precisely, differentiating finer shades of meaning even in the most complex situations.
Spoken interaction You can take part effortlessly in any conversation or discussion and have a good familiarity with idiomatic expressions and colloquialisms.
You can express yourself fluently and convey finer shades of meaning precisely.
If you do have a problem you can backtrack and restructure around the difficulty so smoothly that other people are hardly aware of it.
Spoken production You can present a clear, smoothly-flowing description or argument in a style appropriate to the context and with an effective logical structure which helps the recipient to notice and remember significant points. Listening You have no difficulty in understanding any kind of spoken language, whether live or broadcast, even when delivered at fast native speed, provided. You have some time to get familiar with the accent. Writing You can write clear, smoothly-flowing text in an appropriate style. You can write complex letters, reports or articles which present a case with an effective logical structure which helps the recipient to notice and remember significant points. You can write summaries and reviews of professional or literary works. Reading You can read with ease virtually all forms of the written language, including abstract, structurally or linguistically complex texts such as manuals, specialised articles and literary works.