Associate Professor

dr. (Alessandra) A. Arcuri

Erasmus School of Law

International and European Union Law

Erasmus University Rotterdam

Woudestein

Room: M5-08

T:+31 10 4081537, +31 10 4081573

E: arcuri@law.eur.nl

Risk Regulation, International Economic Law, Law and Economics

Rethinking the Rule of Law in an Era of Globalisation, Privatisation and Multiculturalisation

Decrypting the public power paradigm in denationalising and privatising legal orders

  • Arcuri, A. & Violi, F. (2017). Reconfiguring Territoriality in International Economic Law. Netherlands Yearbook of International Law, 2016.
  • Arcuri, A. & Simoncini, M. (2015). Scientists and Legal Accountability: Lessons from the L’Aquila Case. EUI Working Papers, LAW (2015/17), 1-17. doi: http://ssrn.com/abstract=2600406
  • Arcuri, A. (2015). The Transformation of Organic Regulation: The Ambiguous Effects of Publicization. Regulation and Governance, 9 (2), 144-159. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/rego.12066[go to publisher's site]
  • Arcuri, A. (2014). The coproduction of the global regulatory regime for food safety standards and the limits of a technocratic ethos. EUI Working Papers, RSCAS 2014 (97), 1-17.
  • Arcuri, A. (2013). International Economic Law Meets Lifestyle Risks: What Role for International Standards? The European Journal of Risk Regulation, 4 (4), 542-547.
  • Arcuri, A. (2012). Back to the Future: US-Tuna II and the New Environment-Trade Debate. The European Journal of Risk Regulation, 2, 177-189. doi: http://dx.doi/org/10.2139/ssrn.2043127
  • Arcuri, A. & Dari-Mattiacci, G. (2010). Centralization versus Decentralization as a Risk-Return Trade-Off. The Journal of Law and Economics, 2010 (53), 359-378.
  • Arcuri, A. & Poli, S. (2010). What Price for the Community Enforcement of WTO Dispute Settlement Body's Rulings? Opinio Juris in Comparatione, 2010 (Paper no. 1), 1-46.
  • Arcuri, A., Gruszczynski, L. & Herwig, A. (2010). Independence of Experts and Standards for Evaluation of Scientific Evidence under the SPS Agreement - New Directions in the SPS Case Law. The European Journal of Risk Regulation, 1 (2), 87-92.
  • Arcuri, A., Gruszcynski, L. & Herwig, A. (2010). Risky Apples Again? Australia - Measures Affecting the Importation of Apples from New Zealand. The European Journal of Risk Regulation, 1 (4), 437-443.
  • Arcuri, A., Woerdman, E. & Clò, S. (2008). Emmissions Trading and the Polluter-Pays Principle: Do Polluters Pay under Grandfathering? International Review of Law and Economics, 2008, 565-590.
  • Arcuri, A. (2008). Eclectism in Law and Economics. Erasmus Law Review, 1 (3), 59-81.
  • Arcuri, A. (2007). Reconstructing precaution: deconstructing misconception. Ethics & international affairs, 21 (3), 359-379.
  • Arcuri, A. (2006). The law of catastrophic risks: or on what to do when the impossible may erupt into the possible. Ars Aequi, 2006 (55), 2-10.
  • Arcuri, A. (2005). A different reason for 'De-Coasing' environmental Law and Economics. European Journal of Law and Economics, 20, 225-246.
  • Arcuri, A. (2002). European Union Law: Italy 2001. The International Lawyer, 36 (3), 855-878.
  • Arcuri, A. & Bergh, R.J. Van den (2001). Metodologie di valutazione dell'impatto della regolamentazione: il ruolo dell'analisi costi-benefici. Mercato Concorrenza Regole, III (2), 223-256.
  • Arcuri, A. (2001). Controlling environmental risk in Europe: the complementary role of an EC environmental liability regime. Tijdschrift voor Milieuschade en Aansprakelijkheidsrecht, 2001 (2), 37-45.
  • Arcuri, A. (2017). Glyphosate as an Object of Re-politicization of International Law. In Jessie Hohmann and Daniel Joyce (Ed.), 'Objects of International Law'. Oxford University Press.
  • Arcuri, A. (2015). Global food safety standards: The evolving regulatory epistemology at the intersection of the SPS Agreement and the Codex Alimentarius Commission. In Panagiotis Delimatsis (Ed.), The Law, Economics and Politics of International Standardisation (pp. 79-103). Cambridge University Press.
  • Arcuri, A. (2013). Reimagining risk regulation: from reason to compassionate reason. In E. Palmerini & E. Stradella (Eds.), Law and Technology: The Challenge of Regulating Technological Development (RoboLaw Series, 1) (pp. 215-229). Pisa: Pisa University Press.
  • Arcuri, A. (2013). The TBT Agreement and Private Regulation. In M.J. Trebilcock & T. Epps (Eds.), Research Handbook on the WTO and Technical Barriers to Trade (pp. 485-524). Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing.
  • Arcuri, A. (2013). Law and Economics of the SPS Agreement: A Critical Perspective. In G. van Calster & D. Prevost (Eds.), Research Handbook on Environment, Health and the WTO (pp. 164-206). Edward Elgar Publishing.
  • Arcuri, A. (2012). Risk Regulation. In A.M. Pacces & R.J. van den Bergh (Eds.), Regulation and Economics - Encyclopedia of Law and Economics (second edition). Cheltenham: Edward ElgarPublishing Ltd..
  • Arcuri, A. (2011). Food Safety at the WTO after 'Continued Suspension': a Paradigm Shift? In Antonis Antoniadis, Robert Schütze & Eleanor Spaventa (Eds.), The European Union and Global Emergencies: A Law and Policy Analysis (pp. 205-224). Oxford: Hart Publishing.
  • Arcuri, A. (2009). Interpreting the concepts of 'risk management' and 'insufficiency of scientific evidence': juggling between the logics of different knowledge-based groups? In Maria.Chiara Malaguti, Claudio Dordi, Saverio Di Benedetto & Alberto Alemanno (Eds.), Science & Law - Scientific Evidence in International and European Law (pp. 66-83). Argo Editore.
  • Arcuri, A., Woerdman, E. & Clò, S. (2008). European Emmissions Trading and the Polluter-Pays Principle: Assessing Grandfathering and Over-allocation. In M. Faure & M. Peeters (Eds.), Climate Change and European Emissions Trading: Lessons for Theory and Practice (pp. 128-150). Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.
  • Arcuri, A. (2006). The Case for a Procedural Version of the Precautionary Principle Erring on the Side of Environmental Preservation. In M. Boyer, Y. Hiriart & D. Martimort (Eds.), Frontiers in the Economics of Environmental Regulation and Liability (pp. 19-63). Hampshire: Ashgate.
  • Arcuri, A. & Pardolesi, P. (2002). Analisi Economica del Diritto (Economic Analysis of Law). In Uitgeverij Giuffrè (Ed.), Enciclopedia Giuridica (pp. 7-20). Milano: Giuffrè.
  • Arcuri, A. (1999). Product Safety Regulation. In Bouckaert, B. and De Geest, G., (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Law and Economics (pp. 329-346). Edward Elgar.
  • Smeele, F.G.M., Arcuri, A. & Tiggele-van der Velde, N. van (2016). Financial instrument to facilitate safe and sound ship recycling Draft Final Report. (Extern rapport). Brussels: European Commission.
  • Arcuri, A., Cafaggi, F. & Simoncini, M. (2013). Opening Editorial and Introduction to Special Issue on 'Transnational Risks and Multilevel Regulation: A Cross-Comparative Perspective'. The European Journal of Risk Regulation, 4 (2), 121-123.
  • Arcuri, A. (2011). Introduction to the Special Issue on Contemporary Food Regulatory Regimes and the Challenges Ahead. Erasmus Law Review, 3 (4), 1917-202.
  • Arcuri, A., Gruszczynski, L. & Herwig, A. (2010). Global governance of risks: WTO, Codex Alimentarius and Private Standards - a report on the SRA-Europe 19th annual conference'. The European Journal of Risk Regulation, 1 (3), 285-287.
  • Arcuri, A. (2007). Compliance is a hard nut to crack in the Biotech Dispute (available at http://www.ictsd.org/cyberlaunch/biores-web.pdf). Bridges Trade BioRes, 2007, 11-13.
  • Arcuri, A. (2001). Foreign Law Year in Review: 2000 - European Law. The International Lawyer, 35 (3), 899-926.
  • Arcuri, A. (2009). The Compatibility of A 'Duty to Inform' with WTO Law. In Hey, Davis & Arcuri (Eds.), Assessment of the Compatibility of the Timber Procurement Assessment System (TPAS) with WTO and EU Law regarding public procurement, a tax on unsustainable wood and a duty to inform, Report for the Dutch Ministry of Environment of Environment (VROM) on the compatibility of the Dutch rules to procure sustainable wood with the WTO and EU legal system (pp. 37-39). The Hague: Ministry of Environment (VROM).
  • Arcuri, A. (2009). The Agreement on Government Procurement. In Hey, Davis & Arcuri (Eds.), Assessment of the Compatibility of the Timber Procurement Assessment System (TPAS) with WTO and EU Law regarding public procurement, a tax on unsustainable wood and a duty to inform, Report for the Dutch Ministry of Environment (VROM) on the compatibility of the Dutch rules to procure sustainable wood with the WTO and EU legal sysem (pp. 11-29). The Hague: Ministry of Environment (VROM).
  • Arcuri, A. (2009). The Compatibility of a TPAS-Based Tax on Non-Sustainable Wood with WTO Law. In Hey, Davis & Arcuri (Eds.), Assessment of the Compatibility of the Timber Procurement Assessment System (TPAS) with WTO and EU Law regarding public procurement, a tax on unsustainable wood and a duty to inform, Report for the Dutch Ministry of Environment (VROM) on the compatibility of the Dutch rules to procure unsustainable wood with the WTO and EU legal system (pp. 30-36). The Hague: Ministy of Environment (VROM).
  • Arcuri, A. (2002). Boekbespreking [Bespreking van het boek Liability and Environment - Private and Public Law Aspects of Civil Liability for Environmental Harm in an International Context]. .
  • Arcuri, A., Davies, G. & Hey, E. (2009). Assessment of the Compatibility of the Timber Procurement Assessment (TPAS) with WTO and EU Law, regarding public procurement, a tax on unsustainable wood and a duty to inform. (Extern rapport). Den Haag: Dutch Ministry of Public Health, Public Planning and Environment.
  • Arcuri, A. & Poli, S. (2010). The Costs of Decentralized Enforcement of WTO Law. In 103 ASIL Proceedings (pp. 3-5). Washington: ASIL.
  • Arcuri, A. (2016). Who is afraid of CETA? . (blog). (blog of the the Deaprtment of International and European Union Law). The Department of International and European Union Law BlogReblogged at: http://alessandraarcuri.com/2017/03/24/reblogging-ceta/.
  • Arcuri, A. (2013). Animal welfare at the WTO bench: Emotions vs Reasons? (blog). The Department of International and European Law Blog. (available: 17 apr 2013).
  • Arcuri, A. (2011). [Bespreking van het boek The Application of the Precautionary Principle in Practice]. The European Journal of Risk Regulation, 143-145.
  • Arcuri, A. (2011). [Bespreking van het boek The Application of the Precautionary Principle in Practice, by Joakim Zander]. The European Journal of Risk Regulation, 2(1), 143-145.
  • Arcuri, A., Cafaggi, F. & Simoncini, M. (Eds.). (2013) The European Journal of Risk Regulation, 4(2).
  • Arcuri, A. (Ed.). (2011) Erasmus Law Review, 3(4).
  • Arcuri, A. (2016, december 01). invited presentation on Non-Tariff barrires in Russia-EU relations, under the WTO legal framework. Moscow, Russia, Seminar on the Effects of The WTO Agreements in the EU and in the Eurasian Economic Union, MGIMO/ESI, Moscow.
  • Arcuri, A. (2016, november 25). Legal Reasoning of WTO Adjudicatory bodies and Science and Technology Studies. ESL, Rotterdam, INFAR Workshop Varieties of Consequential Reasoning and the Rule of Law: Theory and Institutional Contexts.
  • Arcuri, A. (2015, oktober 15). Opening Lecture TTIP: an Informed debate. EUR, Rotterdam, First Young Erasmus Food for Thought Lab ‘The TTIP and the future of the transatlantic regulatory state’.
  • Arcuri, A. (2016, november 17). Scientists and Legal Liability, invited presentation. Universität Heidelberg, Alfred-Weber-Institut für Wirtschaftswissenschaften, German, Workshop on Tort Law and Innovation.
  • Arcuri, A. (2014, september 04). Presentation: The Sound of Science and the Codex Alimenatarius Commission: Understanding Exclusion, Imagining Inclusion. University of Vienna, Vienna., ESIL 10th Anniversary Conference ‘International Law and …’.
  • Arcuri, A. (2015, mei 22). Invited Presentation: Global Regulatory Scientific Institutions. Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva, Workshop on Production and Uses of Expertise by International Bureaucracies.
  • Arcuri, A. (2015, mei 11). Selected Presentation: International Law Meets Science and Technology Studies. The Hague Institute for Global Justice, The Hague., Symposium The Changing Role of Scholarship in International Law,.
  • Arcuri, A. (2015, december 03). Invited Plenary Lecture TTIP and Foreign Investors: Are Some Animals More Equals than Others? EUR, Rotterdam, Common Study Programme on Criminal Justice and Critical Criminology.
  • Arcuri, A. (2014, oktober 17). International Food Politics and the Construction Of Risk: Understanding Exclusion, Imagining Inclusion. Institute for Legal Studies, Centre for Social Sciences, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest, Hungary., COST Action Workshop on Imagining the Future: Conceptions of Risk and the Regulation of Uncertainty in International Law,.
  • Arcuri, A. (2014, mei 17). Political Economy of International Health Law: Science and Capture,. La Sapienza University, Rome, International Conference on The Political Economy Of International Law.
  • Arcuri, A. (2014, mei 16). Accountability Regimes for ‘Food Experts’. Radboud University Nijmegen, Hybridisation of Food Governance Workshop,.
  • Arcuri, A. (2014, juli 10). Multi-Stakeholder Standard-Setting and Regulatory Scientific Institutions: Experiences and Best Practices. University of Bern, Bern, Fourth Society of International Economic Law (SIEL) Global Conference.
  • Arcuri, A. (2013, april 04). presentation: 'L’Aquila and beyond: what role for "responsibility" in regulatory science?'. University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway, EPISTO kick-off conference, Why not epistocracy? Political legitimacy and 'the fact of expertise' Arena Centre for European Studies.
  • Arcuri, A. (,). Presentation: Codex Standards and The WTO: Time For a New Regulatory Epistemology? Tilburg Law and Economics Center (TILEC), Tilburg University,Tilburg., International Conference on “International Standardization, Marrying Public and Private, Global and Local, Law and Economics”.
  • Arcuri, A. (2013, september 14). presentation: "The L'Aquila case and Scientists Accountability'. Free University of Bozen-Bolzano, 11th Annual Meeting German Law and Economics Association.
  • Arcuri, A. (2013, januari 23). presentation: ‘Risk assessment: time for an ‘emotional’ turn?’. University of Antwerp, International Conference on Legal Perspectives on Resilience in Disaster Regulation.
  • Arcuri, A. (2012, juni 22). Rethinking Risk Regulation: From Reason to Compassion? (presentation). Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna, Pisa., Workshop on Regulating Technological Development at the Intersection of Science and Law, RoboLaw Project, 21-22 June 2012.
  • Arcuri, A. (2012, april 16). The Interplay between Government and Governance (presentation). Department of Law, EUI, Florence., International Workshop on Governance by Contract, organized by Prof. Claire Cutler and Prof. Fabrizio Cafaggi,.
  • Arcuri, A. (2012, juni 28). The Transformation of Organic Regulation: The Ambiguous Distributional Effects of 'Publicization' (presentation: ). University of Exeter, UK., 4th Biennial ECPR Standing Group for Regulatory Governance Conference, 27-29 June 2012.
  • Arcuri, A. (2011, december 07). Bottom-up private regulation: the case of organic regulation. Robert Schuman Centre for Advanced Studies, European University Institute, RSCAS Seminar.
  • Arcuri, A. (2011, juni 22). Biobags: bringing theory down to earth. T.M.C. Asser Institute, The Hague, Conference 'Transnational Private Regulation: Beyond the Constitutional Challenge'.
  • Arcuri, A. (2010, juni 22). Rethinking the risk paradigms at the WTO. SRA-Europe, King's College London, Symposium, 'Global governance of risks: WTO, Codex Alimentarius and Private Standards', SRA, London.
  • Arcuri, A. (2017). Sustainable farm management for improvement of animal health and welfare, under the H2020-SFS-2016-2017 call; coordinator (Prof STERNBERG LEWERIN). Submitted Research Proposal: .
  • Arcuri, A. (2016). interview in the Dutch newspaper Trouw on the negotiations on CETA, October 25, 2016, available at http://www.trouw.nl/tr/nl/39681/nbsp/article/detail/4401775/2016/10/25/Is-Philip-Morris-zo-zwak-dat-het-privileges-nodig-heeft.dhtml.
  • Arcuri, A. (2016). Ceci n’est pas Glyphosate: Glyphosate as an object of re-politicization of Global Governance International, Presentation at theWorkshop on Law’s Objects: Emergence, Encounter and Erasure through Object and Image, Queen Mary Centre For Law And Society in a Global Context And UNSW Faculty Of Law Workshop, Queen Mary University, London.
  • Arcuri, A. (2016). Presentation on Accountability of Technocratic Governance. Lunch Meeting linked to the Workshop on Social Legal Theory with Prof. Brian Z. Tamanaha: (2016, juni 13).
  • Arcuri, A. (2016). Discussion Leader: EU Mega-regionals and the future of the democratic and regulatory state. Second Young Erasmus Food for Thought Lab ‘Who Is Afraid of European Mega-Regionals? Reflections on CETA (and the Dormant TTIP), EUR, Rotterdam, The Netherlands: (2016, oktober 28).
  • Arcuri, A. (2016). Revised Version RETHINKING GLOBAL TECHNOCRACY: AN INQUIRY INTO THE AUTHORITY AND ACCOUNTABILITY OF GLOBAL REGULATORY SCIENTIFIC INSTITUTIONS (GRSIS). Proposal submitted to the Vidi Round 2016; not selected.: .
  • Arcuri, A. (2016). Head Organizer, Second Young Erasmus Food for Thought Lab ‘Who Is Afraid of European Mega-Regionals? Reflections on CETA (and the Dormant TTIP), EUR, Rotterdam, The Netherlands (co-organized with Federica Violi and Florin Coman-Kund).
  • Arcuri, A. (2015). RETHINKING GLOBAL TECHNOCRACY: AN INQUIRY INTO THE AUTHORITY AND ACCOUNTABILITY OF GLOBAL REGULATORY SCIENTIFIC INSTITUTIONS (GRSIS). ERC Starting Grant (2015-2016), project selected, invited to the interview, but not funded: .
  • Arcuri, A. (2015). Head Organizer, First Young Erasmus Food for Thought Lab ‘The TTIP and the future of the transatlantic regulatory state’, EUR, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
  • Arcuri, A. (2011). The Private and Public Dimensions of Smart Regulation.
  • Arcuri, A. (2011). Convenor and Chair of the Panel on Standardization Bodies and spoke at the concluding Roundtable. Expert seminar: Irrelevant, Advisor or Decision-makers? The Role of 'Experts' in International Decision-Making: Erasmus School of Law, Rotterdam (2011, juni 24 - 2011, juni 25).
  • Arcuri, A. (2010). Workshop on "Quality and Effectiveness of Transnational Private Regimes: In Search of a Framework", Discussant of 'Indicators of Regulatory Quality and Effectiveness of Corporate Social Responsibility',.
  • Arcuri, A. (2009). Decentralised private enforcement of WTO law? Some critical thoughts. Research Seminar BACT: Erasmus University, Rotterdam (2009, februari 20).
  • Arcuri, A. (2016). EUR Fellowship: research grant awarded by Erasmus University Rotterdam on Rethinking Global Technocracy: Towards a Theoretical Framework for the Accountability of Global Regulatory Scientific Institutions. Overig.
  • Arcuri, A. (2016). Erasmus + Jean Monnet Network for a collaborative project on ‘WTO and EU-Russia Cooperation: Legal and Economic Aspects’. Overig.
  • Arcuri, A. (2015). Research of Excellence Intiative; Grant by Erasmus University Rotterdam for a Collective Project on Depoliticization and the Public Interest (Co-ordinator Prof.dr. Willem Schinkel, EUR). Overig.
  • Arcuri, A. (2011). Research on 'The Public Dimensions of Private Regulatory Regimes in the Area of Social Regulation'. Jean Monnet fellowship: . Overig.
  • Arcuri, A. (2011). Jean Monnet Fellowship, Robert Schuman Centre for Advanced Studies, European University Institute (EUI), Florence. Overig.
  • Arcuri, A. (2003). Global Research Fellow, School of Law – New York University (NYU). Overig.
  • Arcuri, A. (2001). Marie Curie Fellowship, Law and Economics Institute - Hamburg University. Overig.
  • Arcuri, A. (Interview) (2015, Oct 06). The dangers of ISDS in TTIP. [webcast]. In Studio Erasmus, Talkshow. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-eQBLPbOqbw&list=PLVqui2jTS-yfBJTlKvLsW_3gOD51-JgaJ.
  • Arcuri, A. (Expert Panelist) (2015, Jul 03). WTO Appellate Body report on India – Agricultural Products. [webcast]. In Talking Disputes, Organised by ICTSD and WTIA. WTO, Geneva: available at: http://www.ictsd.org/themes/trade-law/events/talking-disputes-the-india-%E2%80%93-agricultural-products-dispute.
  • Arcuri, A. (2015, November 03). TTIP: het verzet groeit (De Kwestie: Interview on the TTIP). Erasmus Magazine, pp. 9-11.
  • Arcuri, A. (2005, Januari 07). Governing the risks of ultra-hazardous challenges for contemporary legal systems. EUR (275 pag.) (Rotterdam: Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam). Prom./coprom.: prof.dr. R.J. Van den Bergh.

Other Teaching:

Honnours Programme, Grand Challenge 2015, Lecture (co-ordinator of the course: Prof. E. Hey), 2015-2016.

Erasmus University College Course: Human Rights and Economic Governance (co-taught with Prof. K. Henrard), April-May 2016.

Public International Law

Faculty Erasmus School of Law
Period B 1.5
Year 2017-2018
Year level bachelor 3 Bachelor Rechtsgeleerdheid / Vrijdagmiddagonderwijs

International Economic Law

Faculty Erasmus School of Law
Period BLOK 4
Year 2017-2018
Year level master Rechtsgeleerdheid / International and European Union Law, master Commercial Law / Commercial and Company Law, master Commercial Law / Maritime & Transport Law

Human Rights & Intern. Econ. Governance

Faculty Erasmus University College
Period LAS Q4
Year 2017-2018
Year level Level 300 LAS / Social and Behavioural Sciences

Public International Law

Faculty Erasmus School of Law
Period B 1.5
Year 2016-2017
Year level bachelor 3 Bachelor Rechtsgeleerdheid / Vrijdagmiddagonderwijs

International Economic Law

Faculty Erasmus School of Law
Period BLOK 4
Year 2016-2017
Year level master Rechtsgeleerdheid / International and European Public Law, master Commercial Law / Commercial and Company Law, master Commercial Law / Maritime & Transport Law

Human Rights & Intern. Econ. Governance

Faculty Erasmus University College
Period LAS Q4
Year 2016-2017
Year level Level 300 LAS / Social and Behavioural Sciences

The European Journal of Risk Regulation

Role Editorial Board
Start date 1/2017

European Universite Institute

Role Jean Monnet Fellow
Obtained wage no
Start date 9/2011
End date 9/2011

New York University School of Law

Role HAUSER GLOBAL RESEARCH FELLOW
Obtained wage no
Start date 2/2003
End date 2/2003

Law and Economics Institute - Hamburg University

Role MARIE CURIE FELLOW
Obtained wage no
Start date 4/2001
End date 4/2001

Young Erasmus

Role Member
Start date 1/2015

Erasmus School of Law

Role Master Coordinator
Start date 1/2015

Associate Professor

University Erasmus University Rotterdam
School Erasmus School of Law
Department International and European Union Law
Country The Netherlands

Address

Visiting address
Postal address
Campus Woudestein Postbus 1738
Burg. Oudlaan 50 3000 DR Rotterdam
3062 PA Rotterdam