The European Union's Research and Innovation Magazine, Horizon, has published an article about research lead by ISS Senior Lecturer Georgina Gomez on the growth and economic importance to alternative currencies.
The article describes various alternative exchange schemes from around the world. These complementary or community currencies are diffirent from cryptocurrencies such as Bitcoin as they are often centred around a specific region or conviction.
Georgina Gomez supervizes the EU-funded MICCO project, the objective of which is to use modelling techniques to analyse what makes a successful community currency. Many of the small-scale schemes are set up to tackle what Gomez calls '...the failings of the capitalist system in general'. Communities set up schemes to deal with local poverty, environmental damage and so on.