Cultures of Innovation in the Creative Industries (CICI)

The main research question of the 'Cultures of Innovation in the Creative Industries' (CICI) is how cultures of innovation develop in co-located creative industries. Dr Erik Hitters, Dr Pawan Bhansing and Yosha Wijngaarden focused on the development of and interrelationships between companies, markets, networks and the places where they are located (creative business centres). Besides that, they studied the effects of their co-location on both the companies themselves, their competitiveness, innovative capacities, and collaborations. This research aims to unveil which cultural, institutional and functional variables add value to small-scale creative clusters.


The output of this project takes shape in the form of concrete recommendations and findings on identity, management, collegiality, motivation and reputation based on the value of co-location in the creative industries. For instance, the research shows how small-scale creative clusters provides creative entrepreneurs with the opportunity to express and present themselves in a professional way. Besides this, the CICI project generated a bigger insight in the sources of innovation from which creative entrepreneurs tend to profit. These sources are put together in four clear-cut categories (Peers, Place, Partners, Passion).

Impact on society

Although creativity and innovation have become very fashionable terms in policy, business as well as academia, there is a lack of scientific and strategic knowledge about the relationships and networks that enable and sustain creativity and innovation in the creative industries. Furthermore, it has generated understanding of the contextual and organisational factors underpinning the development of creative entrepreneurship. This is beneficial to small-scale creative clusters and their managements, creative entrepreneurs, creative industries as a whole, but it is beneficial to other industries as well.

Impact on the field

The CICI-project has generated knowledge about the specific conditions under which the creative industries can realise their innovative potential. This research has aimed to fill this gap in theory, which allows other researchers to build on a more solid base of theory. This means the field could now benefit from a more complete theoretical framework. Since the core of this research is applicable to other industries as well, it could be considered interdisciplinary, which definitely fits the spirit of the contemporary creative industries.

The researchers

  • dr. (Erik) HJCJ Hitters

    **Erik Hitters is Associate Professor of Media and Creative Industries in the Department of Media & Communication of Erasmus University Rotterdam.** He has…
    dr. (Erik) HJCJ Hitters
  • dr. (Yosha) YGD Wijngaarden

    Yosha Wijngaarden is assistant professor of Media and Creative Industries at the Media and Communication department. Driven by insights from sociology,…
    dr. (Yosha) YGD Wijngaarden

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